This leads to the next challenge, which is the rights of humans, who presumably have more of them than animals. Experiments that affect their privacy or health must be avoided. Scientific experiments that involve human subjects must uphold high standards of ethics, which is a lesson that was painfully learned from Nazi medical experiments and the Tuskegee syphilis experiment in the mid 20th century. The Nazi War Crimes Tribunal outcomes resulted in the Nuremberg code, which states a set of ethical principles for experimentation on human subjects. Today, ethical standards for human subject research are taken seriously around the world, with ongoing debate or differences in particulars . In the United States, experiments involving human subjects are required by law to be approved by an institutional review board (IRB). Typically, the term IRB is also used to refer to the proposal for an experiment or set of experiments that has been approved by the review board, as in the statement, ``that requires an IRB''. Experiments involving VR are usually not controversial and are similar to experiments on simulator sickness that have been widely approved for decades.
Steven M LaValle 2019-03-14